ePapers Repository

Eye quietness and quiet eye in expert and novice golf performance: an electrooculographic analysis

Gallicchio, G and Cooke, A and Ring, C (2017) Eye quietness and quiet eye in expert and novice golf performance: an electrooculographic analysis. In: 14th World Congress of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP), Seville, Spain.

PDF - Published Version


Quiet eye (QE) is the final ocular fixation on the target of an action (e.g., the ball in golf putting). Camerabased eye-tracking studies have consistently found longer QE durations in experts than novices; however, mechanisms underlying QE are not known. To offer a new perspective we examined the feasibility of measuring the QE using electrooculography (EOG) and developed an index to assess ocular activity across time: eye quietness (EQ). Ten expert and ten novice golfers putted 60 balls to a 2.4 m distant hole. Horizontal EOG (2ms resolution) was recorded from two electrodes placed on the outer sides of the eyes. QE duration was measured using a EOG voltage threshold and comprised the sum of the pre-movement and post-movement initiation components. EQ was computed as the standard deviation of the EOG in 0.5 s bins from –4 to +2 s, relative to backswing initiation: lower values indicate less movement of the eyes, hence greater quietness. Finally, we measured club-ball address and swing durations. T-tests showed that total QE did not differ between groups (p = .31); however, experts had marginally shorter pre-movement QE (p = .08) and longer post-movement QE (p < .001) than novices. A group × time ANOVA revealed that experts had less EQ before
backswing initiation and greater EQ after backswing initiation (p = .002). QE durations were inversely correlated with EQ from –1.5 to 1 s (rs = –.48 - –.90, ps = .03 - .001). Experts had longer swing durations than novices (p = .01) and, importantly, swing durations correlated positively with post-movement QE (r = .52, p = .02) and negatively with EQ from 0.5 to 1s (r = –.63, p = .003). This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring ocular activity using EOG and validates EQ as an index of ocular activity. Its findings challenge the dominant perspective on QE and provide new evidence that expert-novice differences in ocular activity may reflect differences in the kinematics of how experts and novices execute skills.

Type of Work:Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Department:School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences
Date:July 2017
Series/Collection Name:Proceedings of the XIV ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology
Keywords:Electrooculography; Eye quietness; Golf putting; Kinematics; Psychophysiology; Quiet eye
Subjects:B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Q Science > QP Physiology
Funders:Economic and Social Research Council (grants PTA-026-27-2696 and ES/J50001X/1)
Copyright Holders:The Author(s), International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP)
ID Code:3092

Export Reference As : ASCII + BibTeX + Dublin Core + EndNote + HTML + METS + MODS + OpenURL Object + Reference Manager + Refer + RefWorks
Share this item :
QR Code for this page

Repository Staff Only: item control page