ePapers Repository

State Capacity and Non-state Service Provision in Fragile and Conflict-affected States

Batley, Richard and Mcloughlin, Claire (2009) State Capacity and Non-state Service Provision in Fragile and Conflict-affected States. Technical Report. University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

[img]
Preview
PDF
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution .

EIRS3.pdf
485Kb

URL of Published Version: http://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/EIRS3.pdf

Abstract

How can governments effectively engage with non-state providers (NSPs) of basic services where capacity is weak? This paper examines whether and how fragile and conflict affected states can co-ordinate, finance, and set and apply standards for the provision of basic services by NSPs. It explores ways of incrementally engaging the state, beginning with activities that are least likely to do harm to non-state provision.

Through the ‘indirect’ roles of setting the policy environment and engaging in policy dialogue, regulating and facilitating, contracting, and entering into mutual and informal agreements with NSPs, the state can in principle assume responsibility for the provision of basic services without necessarily being involved in direct provision. But government capacity to perform these roles is constrained by the state’s weak legitimacy, coverage and competence, lack of basic information about the non-state sector, and lack of basic organisational capacity to form and maintain relationships with NSPs. The experience of the exercise of the indirect roles in fragile settings suggests:

* Governments may be more willing to engage with NSPs where there is recognition that government cannot alone deliver all services, where public and private services are not in competition, and where there is evidence that successful collaboration is possible (demonstrated through small-scale pilots).

* The extent to which engagements are ‘pro-service’may be influenced by government motives for engagement and the extent to which the providers that are most important to poor people are engaged.

* Formal policy dialogue between government and NSPs may be imperfect, unrepresentative and at times unhelpful in fragile settings. Informal dialogue - at the operational level - could more likely be where synergies can be found.

* Regulation is more likely to be ‘pro-service’ where it offers incentives for compliance, and where it focuses on standards in terms of outputs and outcomes rather than inputs and entry controls.

* Wide scale, performance-based contracting has been successful in delivering services in some cases, but the sustainability of this approach is often questioned. Some successful contractual agreements have a strong informal, relational element and grow out of earlier informal connections.

* Informal and mutual agreements can avoid the capacity problems and tensions implicit in formal contracting but may present problems of non-transparency and exclusion of competition.

Paradoxically, the need for large-scale approaches and quick co-ordination of services in fragile and conflict-affected settings may require ‘prematurely high’ levels of state-NSP engagement, before the development of the underlying institutional structures that would support them. When considering strategies to support the capacity of government to engagement with NSPs, donors should:

* Recognise non-state service provision and adopt the ‘do no harm’ principle: It would be wrong to set the ambition of 'managing ‘ non-state provision in its entirety, and it can be very harmful for low-capacity states to seek to regulate all NSP or to draw it into clumsy contracts.

* Beware of generalisation: Non-state provision takes many forms in response to different histories and to political and economic change. The possibilities and case for state engagement have to be assessed not assumed. The particular identities of NGOs and enterprises should be considered.

* Recognise that state building can occur through any of the types of engagement with NSPs: Types of engagement should therefore be selected on the basis of their likely effectiveness in improving service delivery.

* Begin with less risky/small scale forms of engagement where possible: State interventions that imply a direct controlling role for the state and which impose obligations on NSPs (i.e. contracting and regulation) require greater capacity (on both sides) and present greater risk of harm if performed badly than the roles of policy dialogue and entering into mutual agreements.

* Adopt mixed approaches: The choice between forms of engagement does not have to be absolute. Rather than adopting a uniform plan of engagement in a particular country, it may be better to try different approaches in different regions or sectors.

Type of Work:Monograph (Technical Report)
School/Faculty:Colleges (2008 onwards) > College of Social Sciences
Number of Pages:42
Department:International Development Department
References:

ADB, (2005), Islamic Republic of Pakistan: Institutional Strengthening for Government-NGO Cooperation: Consultants Report, Asian Development Bank, Pakistan

Aga Khan Foundation Team (2007), Non-State Providers and Public-Private-Community Partnerships in Education, Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2008

Alonso, A., (2006), Rehabilitating the Health System after Conflict in East Timor: A shift from NGO to Government Leadership, Health Policy and Planning, Volume 21, Number 3, May 2006 , pp. 206-216(11)

Ameli O, Newbrander, W. (2008), Contracting for Health Services: Effects of Utilization and Quality on the Costs of the Basic Package of Health Services in Afghanistan, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86

Andrabi, T, J. Das and A. I. Khwaja (2006), The possibilities and limits of private schooling in Pakistan, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4066, Washington: World Bank

Balabanova D, Oliveira-Cruz V and Hanson K. (2008), Health Sector Governance and Implications for the Private Sector. Discussion paper prepared for the Rockefeller Foundation, November 2008

Bano, M. (2007), Pakistan Country Review: History of State-NSP Relations, International Development Department, University of Birmingham

Batley, R.A. (1996), Public-Private Relationships and Performance in Service Provision, Urban Studies, Vol. 33 Nos 4-5, pp.723-752

Batley, R. and Larbi, G.A, (2004), The Changing Role of Government: The Reform of Public Services in Developing Countries, Palgrave Macmillan

Batley, R.A. and Larbi, G.A. (2006), Capacity to deliver? Management, Institutions and Public Services in Developing Countries, in Y. Bangura and G. Larbi (eds) Public Sector Management Reform in Developing Countries, Palgrave, 2006

Batley, R.A. (2006), Engaged or Divorced? Cross-service Findings on Government Relations with Non-state Service Providers, Public Administration and Development, vol. 26, issue 3

Berry, C., Forder, A., Sultan, S., and Moreno-Torres, M., (2004), Approaches to Improving the Delivery of Social Services in Difficult Environments, PRDE Working Paper 3, DFID, London

Besley, T., and Ghatak, M., (2007), Provision of Public Services by Non-state Actors, London School of Economics, London May 10, 2007

Brown, L. and Troutt, E. (2004) Funding relations between nonprofits and government: A positive example, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 5 – 27

Brinkerhoff, D., (2007), Capacity Development in Fragile States, Maastricht, European Center for Development Policy Management (ECDPM), Working Paper 58D

Carlson, C., et al. (2005), “Improving the Delivery of Health and Education Services in Difficult Environments: Lessons from Case Studies”, DFID Health Systems Resource Centre, London, February.

Carlson, C., (2007), Health Service Delivery in Fragile States for US$5 Per Person Per Year: Myth or Reality?, Merlin/London School of Hygeine and Tropical Medicine, London

CIET (2003), 'Social audit of governance and delivery of public services, Baseline survey 2002: National report', Government of Pakistan, National Reconstruction Bureau

Clayton, A., (1999), Contracts or Partnerships: Working through local NGOs in Ghana and Nepal: How local NGOs have been engaged in the provision of rural water and sanitation at community level in Ghana and Nepal, WaterAid, London

Collier, P., (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest are Failing and What can be Done About it, Oxford University Press

Collier, P., (2007), Post-Conflict Recovery: How Should Policies be Distinctive, Center for the Study of African Economies, Oxford

Collier P. and Okonjo-Iweala N., (2002), 'World Bank Group Work in Low-Income Countries Under Stress: A Task Force Report', World Bank, Washington D.C.

Commins, S., (2006), Workstream on Service Delivery: Synthesis Paper on Good Practice: The Challenge for Donors, OECD DAC Fragile States Group, Paris

Eldon, J., Waddington, C., and Hadi, Y., (2008) Health System Reconstruction: Can it Contribute to State-building?, Report prepared for DFID, HLSP Institute

Fanour, B., and Grant, U., (2000), Poverty Reduction and Employment Generation: The Case of Agetur, Benin, International Development Department, Birmingham

Fox, J.W., (2004), The Treatment of the Private Sector in African PRSPs and APRs, Report to the Bureau for Africa, Washington: USAID

Gazely, B., (2007), Beyond the Contract: The Scope and Nature of Informal Government – Nonprofit Partnerships, Public Administration Review, Volume 68, Issue 1 (pp. 141-154)

Ghani, A., Lockhart, C., and Carnahan, M., 2005, Closing the Sovereignty Gap: An Approach to State-Building, Overseas Development Institute, London

Green, A., Shaw, J., Dimmock, F., & Conn, C. (2002), 'A Shared Mission? Changing Relationships between Government and Church Health Services in Africa' in The International Journal of Health Planning and Management 17(4)333-353.

Hansen, et. al., (2008), Measuring and managing progress in the establishment of basic health services: the Afghanistan health sector balanced scorecard, The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Volume 23 Issue 2, pp. 107 - 117

Hilderbrand, M.E. and M.S. Grindle (1995), 'Building Sustainable capacity in the public sector: what can be done?', Public Administration and Development, Vol.15, No. 5, pp. 441-463

Howell, J. and J. Lind (2008), Civil Society with Guns is not Civil Society: Aid, Security and Civil Society in Afghanistan, NGPA Research Paper 24, London School of Economics

Kadzamira, E., Moran, D., Mulligan, J., Ndirenda, N., Reed, B., and Rose, P., (2004), Malawi: Study of Non-State Providers of Basic Services, International Development Department, University of Birmingham

Larbi G., Adelabu M., Rose P., Jawara, D., Nwaorgu O. and Vyas S. (2004), Nigeria: Study of Non-State Providers of Basic Services, International Development Department, University of Birmingham,

Larbi, G., (2006), Opportunities and challenges in enabling non-state providers of basic services: case studies and lessons from Nigeria, Paper prepared for the workshop: The Politics of Service Delivery in Democracies: better access for the poor

Loevinsohn, B., and Harding, A., (2005), Buying results? Contracting for Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries, Lancet 2005; 366: 676–81

MacNeil, I. (1978) Contracts: Adjustment of Long-term Economic Relations under Classical, Neo-classical and Relational law, Northwestern University Law Review 72, 854-905

Mcloughlin, C., (2008), Annotated bibliography on Contracting NGOs to Deliver Services, prepared for ESRC research on Whose Public Action? Analysing inter-sectoral collaboration for service delivery, unpublished

Meagher, P., (2005), Service Delivery in Fragile States: An Issues Paper, Report prepared for USAID, Washington

Mills, A,, S. Bennett, S. Russell (2001), The Challenge of Health Sector Reform: What must governments do, Palgrave: Basingstoke

Moran, D., (2006), Comparing Services: A Survey of Leading Issues in the Sectoral Literatures, Public Administration and Development, vol. 26, issue 3, pp. 197-206

Mott McDonald, (2008), Basic Services Fund (BSF) of the Government of Southern Sudan and DFID, Application Guidelines for Third Round, Mott McDonald

Morton, J., and Denny, R., (2008), Review of Basic Services, South Sudan, Triple Line Consulting, London

Nair, P. (2007a), Historical Analysis of Relationships between the State and the Non-Governmental Sector in India, International Development Department, University of Birmingham

Nair, P (2007b), Karuna Trust and Department of Health and Family Welfare: Management of Primary Health Care Centre, International Development Department, University of Birmingham

Nair, P. (2007), Historical Analysis of Relationships between the State and the Non-Governmental Sector in India, International Development Department, University of Birmingham

Newbrander W (2007), Rebuilding Health Systems and Providing Health Services in Fragile States. MSH Occasional Paper No 7, USAID.

Ndongosieme, A., Bahati, E., Lubamba, P., and Declercq, E., (2007), Collaboration between a TB control programme and NGOs during humanitarian crisis: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 85 (8)

Nurul Alam, S.M. (2007), Bangladesh Country Review: History of State-NSP Relations, International Development Department, University of Birmingham

OECD DAC, (2008) Service Delivery in Fragile Situations: Key Concepts, Findings and Lessons, OECD, Paris

OECD DAC, (2008) State Building in Situations of Fragility: Initial Findings, OECD DAC, Paris

Osmond, B., O?Connell, a., and Bunting, R., (2007), Review of the Pharmaceuticals area and Preparation of a Mid-term Pharmaceuticals Policy and Implementation Plan for the Ministry of Health & Social Welfare, Liberia, Report prepared for the European Commission

Oxfam (2009), Blind Optimism: Challenging the myths about private health care in poor countries, Oxfam Briefing Paper 125, Oxford: Oxfam International

PATHS, (2008), Celebrating Success: PATHS in Nigeria (2002-2008), Partnerships for Transforming Health Systems, DFID

Palmer, N., (2006), An Awkward Threesome – Donors, Governments and Non-State Providers of Health in Low Income Countries, Public Administration and Development, vol. 26, issue 3, pp.231–240

Palmer, N., (2006) Contracting out Health Services in Fragile States, British Medical Journal, vol 332, pp. 718-721

Pavanello, S., and Darcy, J., (2008), Improving the provision of basic services for the poor in fragile environments: International Literature Review, Report prepared or AusAID Office of Development Effectiveness, Overseas Development Institute, London

Pavignani, E. and J.R. Durão(1999), Managing external resources in Mozambique: Building new aid relationships on shifting sands??. Health Policy and Planning 14 3 , pp. 243–253

Pavignani, E., and Colombo, A., (2001), Providing Health Services in Countries disrupted by Civil Wars: A comparative analysis of Mozambique and Angola 1975–2000, World Health Organization, 2001

Pavignani, E., and Colombo, A., (2008a), Analysing Disrupted Health Sectors, a Modular Manual: Module 5. Understanding health policy processes?

Pavignani, E. and Colombo, A, (2008b), Analysing Disrupted Health Sectors, a Modular Manual: Module 7: Analysing patterns of healthcare provision?

Pavignani, E. (2008c), Analysing Disrupted Health Sectors, a Modular Manual: Module 8: Studying management systems?

Picciotto, R. (1997) Putting Institutional Economics to Work: From Participation to Governance, in Clague (ed.), Institutions and Economic Development: Growth and Governance in Less-Developed and Post-Socialist Countries, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

Robinson, M., (2008), Hybrid States: Globalisation and the Politics of State Capacity, Political Studies, Volume 56, pp. 566 - 583

Rondinelli, D., (2006), Enhancing the Public Administration Capacity of Fragile States and Post Conflict Societies: Parallel and Partnership Approached, USAID, Washington

Rose, P., (2006), Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good Practice, Paper prepared for the DAC Fragile States Group

Rose, P., (2007), Supporting Non-state Providers in Basic Education Service Delivery, Report prepared for DFID Policy Division, Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity, Sussex

Sansom, K., (2006), Government Engagement with Non-State Providers of Water and Sanitation Services, Public Administration and Development, vol. 26, pp. 207-217

Soeters, R., Griffiths, F (2003), Improving Government Health Services Through Contract Management: A case from Cambodia, Health Policy and Planning; 18(1): 74-83

Soeters R, Habineza C, Peerenboom B (2006). Performance-based financing and changing the district health system: experience from Rwanda. Bulletin of the WHO, 84:884–889.

Strong L, Wali A, Sondorp E. 2005. Health Policy in Afghanistan: Two years of rapid change. A review of the process from 2001 to 2003. London: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Conflict and Health Programme.

Teamey, K. and Mcloughlin, C., (2009), Understanding the Dynamics of Relationships between Government Agencies and Non-state Providers of Basic Services: Key Issues Emerging from the Literature, NGPA Research Paper 30, London School of Economics

Trémolet, S., (2006), Adapting regulation to the needs of the poor: Experience in 4 East African Countries, BPD: London, Published in association with GTZ and the World Bank Institute.

Trémolet, S. and Browning, S., (2002), The interface between regulatory frameworks and partnerships: public, private and civil society partnerships providing water and sanitation to the poor, Research and Survey Series, Business Partners for Development Water and Sanitation Cluster

Trémolet, S., and Halpern, J., (2006), Regulation of Water and Sanitation Services: Getting Better Service to Poor People, OBA Working Paper Series No. 8, Global Partnership on Output Based Aid

Ullah, A., Newell, J., Ahmed, J., and Hyder, M. (2006), Government–NGO Collaboration: The Case of Tuberculosis Control in Bangladesh, Health Policy and Planning, 21(2), pp. 143-155

USAID, (2008), From Humanitarian and Post-conflict Assistance to Health System Strengthening in Fragile States: Clarifying the Transition and the Role of NGOs, USAID, 2009, New Partnerships Initiative: NGO Empowerment

Van Slyke, D., (2006), Agents or Stewards: Using Theory to Understand the Government-Nonprofit Social Service Contracting Relationship, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 17: pp. 157–187

Waldman, R., (2006), Health in Fragile States, Country Case Study: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arlington, Virginia, USA: Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival, (BASICS) for USAID.

Waters, H., Garrett, B., and Burnham, G., and Burnham, G., (2007), Rehabilitating Health Systems in Post-Conflict Situations, UNU-WIDER Research Paper No 2007/06

WHO, (2005), Working With the Non-state Sector to Achieve Public Health Goals, World Health Organisation

Wood, J., (2008), Parallel Service Delivery in a Fragile State, Capacity. org

Zivetz, L., (2006), Health Service Delivery in Early Recovery Fragile States: Lessons from Afghanistan, Cambodia, Mozambique, and Timor Leste, Arlington, Va., USA: Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (BASICS) for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Projects:Governance and Social Development Resource Centre
Series/Collection Name:GSDRC Emerging Issues Papers
Keywords:international development, services, health, education, sanitation, fragile states
Subjects:H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
J Political Science > JF Political institutions (General)
Related URLs:
URLURL Type
http://www.gsdrc.orgOrganisation
Funders:UK Department for International Development (DFID)
Copyright Status:Copyright 2009 University of Birmingham
Copyright Holders:University of Birmingham
ID Code:647

Export Reference As : ASCII + BibTeX + Dublin Core + EndNote + HTML + METS + MODS + OpenURL Object + Reference Manager + Refer + RefWorks
Share this item :
QR Code for this page

Repository Staff Only: item control page